An area of wet rot to a 1930s window appears to be the result of either water ingress past the putty or insufficient primer used when painting a previous repair. As you can see I made a cut out of the effected area leaving in the piece that has the interior moulding it may have been a whole new window if the wet rot had eaten away at the moulding.
A new piece was then added and fastened with glue and screws, timber plugs were used to plug the screw holes. Not entirely necessary but a far more professional finish. Once dry the window was re-hung and primed.
Without the correct grade of hinges your doors may fail. Failure doesn’t mean that your door falls off its hinges; normally failure comes in the form of a door starting to stick or rub on the door frame. If it’s sticking along the edge of the door against the frame anywhere above the lock or latch, then the top hinge may have failed. Often it’s the pin that stretches. This is enough to throw the door out towards the frame. Another common symptom is where the lock no longer strikes the plate in the correct place, often leading to the key having to be forced to turn.
Another tell tell sign would be hinges that start to creek – that’s the hinge saying it can’t cope with all the weight. It’s the pin or flange on the knuckle of the hinge physically rubbing metal on metal.
On a regular basis I am asked to hang doors. Often the customer informs me that they have the doors and all the ‘furniture’ (hinges, handles, locks etc.). At the moment oak veneered doors seem to be in vogue. These doors weigh 25kg plus, then you have to consider that the latches and levers or handles add another 2-4kg. The customer can easily have parted with £150-£200 for each door set, but no consideration has been given to the hinges, and more often than not the cheapest are purchased as long as they are the right colour/finish. Those cheap hinges come with screws that I put straight in the bin as they sit proud of the hinge leaf, causing binding which in turn causes the screws to eventually pull out.
So without getting too pedantic about hinges, if time is spent ensuring that the correct grade hinge is used there will be no future problems.
The most important things to consider are the weight of the door and the application. By application I mean is it in a light domestic situation? An office? A potentially high traffic area? Interior or exterior? Fire rated? If that’s the case, is there a door closure? If there is, add 25% to the door mass.
Hinge grades are from 1 to 14, grade 1 being the lightest and grade 14 the heaviest.
The most common ones available are grades 7, 9, 11, 12, and 13. I personally would not use anything under a 5, even for light weight interior panelled doors.
Grade 7: Max door weight 40kg tested to 200,000 cycles (opening and closing a door)
Grade 9: Max door weight 60kg tested to 25,000 cycles
Grade 11: Max door weight 80kg tested to 200,000 cycles
Grade 12: Max door weight 100kg tested to 200,000 cycles
Grade 13: Max door weight 120 kg tested to 200,000 cycles
Also consider that hinges come with or without washers, or with bearings on some of the higher grades. For the door example above, that is a 25-30kg set (door and furniture), I would normally use a grade 7 washered hinge, and as it is an internal door a 75mm hinge x 3 per door would be employed.
If you really want to get into this subject there is a British Standard no.EN1965 that covers the subject comprehensively but I can think of better things to do!
Incidentally there is a patron Saint of hinges called Cardea who in Roman times was celebrated on the 1st of June.
A captivating new piece of public artwork, made from 10,000 tree samples gathered from across the world, has been unveiled by the University of Bristol.
The intricate structure, called Hollow, is located in Royal Fort Gardens and represents the planet’s history and evolution through time.
Hollow was commissioned to mark the opening of the University’s £56.5million Life Sciences building and is produced by Bristol-based public art producers, Situations.
It took the artist Katie Paterson three years to amass the samples, many of which have been donated by private collectors, arboretums and botanic gardens across the world.
If Art is an enhancement of the everyday is this door Art?
Feel the surface of the wood and breathe in the smell of wood. Follow the grain of the wood, the imperfections, the differing tones in the colour and experience the pleasure that comes from noticing these things. Feel that strangely soft surface with your hands; the soft fuzz not yet flattened by the varnish to come – like the soft facial fuzz of your skin; consider the colour and its variations; become aware of the structure of its build, the line of screw heads that mark out the frame that lies between the skin of the ply. Let the size of the hinges hint at the weight they hold. The hinges are magnificent, they are large, their beautiful throat is large. They make their own statement. The rectangular handle in satin steel complements the hinges. Notice the height of the handle. It is not set at regulation height and you must consciously raise your arm a little in order to use it. Perhaps it positions you differently in relation to the door, reminding you that a door is a tactile thing.
Having decided to replace an internal door it was important to me that the new door reflect thoughts I have about the house I live in. This house is 1970s ex council, small and not as solid as earlier models. The ground floor of the house had been altered and is now open plan. This led to thinking about the construction of the whole. How some features seem a little mean, like the cavity walls that were built just slightly narrower than would accommodate insulation. See this in contrast to the staircase, which is solid and generous. The internal doors however are merely functional and carry an overall feeling of lack of care, of being unnoticed. These doors are mass produced, inexpensive and, although adequate, perhaps easily damaged. This is evidenced by one door upstairs that shows the mark of a boot. I suspect a little violence in its history.
Should not an object that is as important to the life of a house as a door deserve better? Artists, architects, designers, have always considered our environment, questioning how we use or abuse it. Art and life are inextricably linked; think of the arts and craft movement, de Stijl and the Bauhaus. Modernist architects, like them or not, were also interested in developing the spaces we live in, mixing art and life. An internal door in the house le Corbusier designed for himself was tall and wide, a part of the whole wall as well as an opening. And now the new turner prizewinners, Assemble, a cross-disciplinary collective of artists, designers and architects, who have won a major art prize yet do not consider themselves artists. Or are they? Everyone mixing art and life.
The places we live in speak of who we are, what we care about, and a door, it seemed to me, could have a story to tell.
So; the door. Made, built, constructed by a craftsman. A carpenter, someone who loves wood, knows wood, knows how to build, to make, to construct a door. A hands-on skill. All this feeds into the story. Examine this door and it will tell you more. You will see how it was made and what it was made of. It was made of plywood. Plywood is a basic economic and ecological material, it shows its structure and you can see the layers that attest to how it was made. It is ‘everyday’, has many uses and comes in different grades. It is unassuming, unpretentious and beautiful. To have a door that revealed how it was made, made of a wood that revealed how it was made, fitted in with the wider concept of the house as structure revealed, the house as installation, and the house as function. The house as a site for art.
A pencil mark notes where measurement was made. A kink in the frame will mark the point of a knot in the wood. Being able to read how this door was constructed adds to the pleasure of this functional object. The outer edge of the softwood frame is visible when you open the door, so too are the layers of 12 mm plywood either side of the frame. Three layers to each sheet of ply thereby marking its own construction. Screw heads testify to the structure of the hidden part of the frame where they fix the plywood outer skin to the pine frame within. A visual reference connecting this modern door to doors in time past. The ‘threshold’ lies at the top of the door along the ceiling mirroring the ‘threshold’ and the door on the floor above. The ground floor flows uninterrupted beneath the door.
This door is not the readymade of Duchamp that is taken out of its original context in order to see it differently or to question what art is. It is the desire to value the everyday object – a strong theme throughout the story of contemporary art – and in turn to value and think differently about the places and spaces we inhabit. This door is connected to ideas of art and architecture and the sheer pleasure to be had in a well-crafted functional object in everyday use.
The aesthetic comes from the materials used and the function of the object; from following the theme of construction and functionality, from valuing skill, craft and the ecological aspect of materials. If art is an enhancement of the everyday then for me this door is art.
Helen Marland February 2016
Joinery is the art of cutting out, dressing, uniting and framing wood for the external and internal finishing’s of buildings. It has been broadly distinguished from carpentry by this, that while the work of the carpenter cannot be removed without affecting the stability of a structure, the work of a joiner may. The labours of a carpenter give strength to a building; those of a joiner render it fit for habitation.
In joinery the parts are nicely adjusted, and the surfaces exhibited to the eye are carefully smoothed.
The goodness of the work of the joiner depends first on the perfect seasoning of the materials, and second, on the care of the operator. All surfaces must be perfectly out of winding and smooth. The stuff must be square, the mouldings true and regular, and all must be so fixed as to bring out the beauty of the wood. The moving parts must work with ease and freedom. From The Carpenter & Joiners Assistant 1860.
A good piece of furniture or a successful project is the result of a discussion between me the craftsman-designer and you the client.
Sometimes it is a vague idea or a ‘picture in your minds eye’, or perhaps you have a precise design. Often a provisional design is arrived at based on sketches or images from the web or magazines and the exchange of ‘what about’ ideas.
Measurements are taken.
Once a final design is agreed, a drawing and an estimate are worked out, and finally terms and delivery are agreed.