Traditional standards. Traditional tradesman. Traditional service.
Thank you for visiting my website. I have been in the trade for over 40 years; my 5 year apprenticeship as a boat builder was followed by a further 2 years as a wood machinist, then a spell repairing furniture and manufacturing reproduction antique clocks followed. I then spent a further 15 years working in a therapeutic environment passing on my skills, before setting myself up as a self-employed carpenter/joiner.
As you will appreciate, I undertake a wide range of projects, so scrolling through the site map may well direct you to past work that may be similar to your requirements.
The preferred way to contact me is by using the contact page on this site. However you can always ring me during normal working hours. Lead times vary depending on the time of year; small jobs I can often do promptly.
I cover Southampton, Winchester, New Forest and Waterside.
Traditional standards. Traditional tradesman. Traditional service.
This shows a completed shelving unit which was built into a chimney breast in a
Victorian terraced property. The object was to create a copy from a original that
was taken out by a previous owner, using an old photo.
The customer had a metal spiral staircase which had seen better days
and which they didn’t like, so a replacement was planned and fitted, using
hemlock wood for the spindles and handrails, finishing in an oil to enhance
the apperance of the wood.
A true craftsmanFantastic from start to finish. Listened to my requirements and fulfilled criteria brilliantly.
Nicola Rogers, Southampton 04/2017
Mr Stone is meticulous in preparation in the tasks carried out & in clearing up. Jobs completed for us – Replaced all door handles – Supplied & fitted new bathroom door – Repaired oak garage doors – Made & fitted new fire surround – Made bespoke wardrobe. Excellent quality of workmanship & time keeping. Extremely courteous & knowledgeable.Susan, Hampshire 21/03/2017
Very timely, efficient, tidy and overall I am very pleased with the finished result.
Sharon Ayles, Southampton 01/2017
Ian came and fitted a newell post hand rail & spindles. I was very impressed at his workmanship, as he hand cut & fitted each piece to a very high quality. I would thoroughly recommend Ian’s services to anyone looking for a carpenter.Jean, Hampshire 09/12/2016
Mr Stone has high professional standards. He keeps appointments as promised.
Mrs Constance Martyn, Winchester 10/2016
Work is excellent and I am very happy with the work result.Miss Sheila Krzymuski, Southampton 10/2016
I looked at Ian’s website and thought his is the carpenter I am looking for. The work was undertaken to a very high standard replicating some unusual Victorian joinery.
Sean Stevens, Southampton 09/2016
Excellent job. Ian is a really nice, polite and conscientious worker. Job was completed in good time and for a very reasonable cost.
Mrs Diane Marsh, Southampton 09/2016
Ian carried out his work with great attention to detail & expertise. He made some brilliant under stair pull out storage exactly to my request. Also previously made floating shelves to a high standard. I will be asking him to do further work on our windows. Highly recommended.Fiona, Hampshire 22/07/2016
This was a neat and professional job, on time and within a reasonable quote.Which? Trusted Traders Consumer 14/07/2016
Had 7 new doors hung and handles etc. Quite difficult fitting but very patient and professional to get them right. Very pleasant man.June, Hampshire 04/07/2016
Internal doors replaced, work was done to a very high standard. Very pleased & would definitely recommend & use again.Val, Hampshire 16/04/2016
Very pleased with the work, which was done to a high standard. Would definitely recommend and use again.Mrs Arrowsmith, Southampton 04/2016
Very satisfied I would ask for help again.Mrs J Guy, Southampton 04/2016
I was delighted with the job that Ian Stone completed, he was professional, skilled and very clean and tidy. I will look forward to providing Ian with ongoing work and would not consider another carpenter based on this experience, 110% recommendation.Mr Gordon McLean, Southampton 13/04/2016
Excellent workmanship, polite gentlemen. Would recommend.Helen Sharma, Southampton 6/04/2016
Excellent craftsmanship completed in a timely fashion.
Miss Sue Warren, Southampton 26/02/2016
Ian was very helpful before I had my new door fitted, I am very happy with the quality and would use him again.
Miss Dawn Heppell, Southampton 30/01/2016
We are extremely pleased by the professional and thorough workmanship shown by Ian and his colleague. They always came on time and completed the job to a high standard – Ian has a wealth of information about pontoons and the river!
Mr Paul Allcock, Southampton 29/01/2016
Mr Colin Sebright, Southampton 13/01/2016
I read the reviews and thought “this guy is good” how true the review were. Quality workmanship, timely, realistic quote and stuck to it & finally he left the work area clean. Removed and replaced 4 non standard internal doors, the frames could not be removed because that probably would have meant that I would have needed to replace the walls a well. solid doors fitted and either trimmed back or built up to fit these odd sizes and angles. Had the patience of a saint to tackle this workskatelandmanager 20/12/2015
Ian was absolutely trustworthy, skilled, professional carpenter. He assessed, priced, and carried out the work to the highest standard. The work was to repair wooden window frames (period) and they now look wonderful and will last us out!Sue, Hampshire 20/09/2015
Gordon Farr, Brockenhurst 09/2015
Very pleases overall and would recommend to family and friends.
Mrs M. Barnett, Southampton 21/08/2015
Excellent job. Totally satisfied with todays work.Lisa, Hampshire 18/08/2015
I am very pleased with the work. Well done.
Mrs V. Cook, Southampton 17/07/2015
Excellent service from a top professional who takes great pride in his work. I highly recommended him and am using him again.Sally, Wiltshire 11/06/2015
Professional job, well carried outWe had a couple of windows in dire need of refurbishment or replacement. Mr Stone arrived for both the quote session & the work on time and the work has been carried out to a very high standard. We would definitely hire him again. Recommended.Jane, Hampshire 30/05/2015
Prompt, professional, quality workR A, Hampshire 20/05/2015
Excellent tradesman I have used twice before. Would recommend.Sonja, Hampshire 05/05/2015
Ian was very professional, worked hard, was, tidy, he gave us exactly what we asked for and as his quote. He was very polite, courteous and I would recommend him to anyone. He even hoovered the drive couldn’t have asked for more.
Mr Kevin And Diane Marsh, Southampton 29/04/2015
Good efficient service. Work completed to a high standard and at given price.
Mr Daniel Maidment, Southampton 04/2015
Third time we have used Mr Stone. Very professional, quick worker who keeps you informed. I would recommend.
Mrs S.M. Edmondson, Southampton 02/ 2015
Very pleased with work, all of it.
Mr M Wright, Southampton 01/2015
Very good service, high quality workmanship. Would be very happy to recommend and would certainly use again.
Mrs Ruth Hopkins, Southampton 01/2015
Allways prompt and helpful and produces a professional job.Barbara Jean, Hampshire 15/10/2014
Excellent work -excellent requirement .
R. Geary, Winchester 10/2014
Very patient in the face of adversity!Celia, Hampshire 25/09/2014
Some tricky carpentry repair work carried out conscientiously and to a high standard. Highly recommendedMalcolm, Hampshire 23/09/2014
Good job, professional and tidy.Christine, Hampshire 18/09/2014
Excellent service by an excellent craftsman!
Gill Escott, Southampton 07/2014
This is a window I repaired on a Victorian house near Southampton.
With well over thirty years experience in carpentry, and fully functioning static and mobile workshops, I am able to offer all aspects of bespoke carpentry and joinery, as well as standard refurbishments in your home, including doors, stairs, windows, skirting, furniture repairs, flooring, wardrobes, and general repairs and renovations.
Changing your interior doors will have an immediate impact on the ambiance of your home. Hallways or landings may well be more door than wall for example, where there can be up to six doors in a relatively close space. If you have a dull or darkened hallway, changing the doors will transform this space.
The main entrance door, that is your front door, will be your first line of defence against the outside world. Your door’s style and choice can say to the world “welcome” as well as “we are secure”. A quote from ‘The Poetics of Space’ by Gaston Bachelard conveys this perfectly: ‘With their furniture of lock and key, handle and hinge, letterbox and knocker, doors open to communicate and embrace, close to protect and hide’.
Back doors, according to recent statistics, are the first choice of attack by would-be intruders, if access to the back garden can be obtained, and that doesn’t necessarily have to be via a side gate either; a neighbour’s back garden that adjoins onto the target is often used. Burglars prefer this as the back garden is often hidden and out of sight. Having robust security on the main entrance door and compromising on the back door is a false economy.
So where do you start? Let’s say you wish to replace your internal doors. You may have an idea of what you would like. You’ve even been along to a supplier and taken a look. Briefly, start with measuring what you have – the width and the height and the thickness. There is no such thing as a standard door size; there are common sizes, however. These are 27”,30”, 32” and 33”. Most doors are probably 78” high or thereabouts, apart from the 32” which commonly is 80” high. Bathrooms and kitchens commonly have 27” doors, whereas 30” are common to living rooms and bedrooms. Because the majority of the housing stock in this country is pre 1971 (pre-metric), the door industry still adopts the imperial measurements when it comes to supply. However, many suppliers adopt imperial sizing for width and height but metric for thickness, so you could end up having a conversation where you order a 2’6” x 35mm door, 35mm being the thickness of most internal doors.
Unique stunning and individual, these doors are handmade, designed for everyday use, and create a unique feature in your property (no two are the same). They are made in a variety of hardwoods.
If your doors are not 35mm but 40mm thick, this usually means that you have metric doors. These are commonly 626, 726, or 826mm wide and 2040mm high, although other sizes are available. An exception to this rule would be imperial width fire doors that come in the sizes stated previously, but which are 40mm thick. On the other hand, a few years ago internal fire doors became available in a 35mm format.
At this stage, bear in mind that the actual door you are replacing maybe under-sized. An example is a nominally 30” door which now is actually 29.5” by 77”. This is not unusual. Most doors need to be shot-in (cut to size when fitted). That’s where it starts to become apparent that you need a carpenter.
If you live in a pre-1930s property, you may have a 28” door that is 72” high and maybe only a 1” thick. To date I know of no supplier that has these sizes off the shelf, so a handmade version of what you need may be your only option; this is something I can advise you about.
Often I hear householders say that they would like to keep the door but it’s a bit tatty. They are usually referring to previous locks that have been fitted and subsequently removed again, leaving holes. In most cases I can sort this kind of problem out by letting-in (fixing an insert) using reclaimed timbers to match.
When it comes to styles, the choice seems never-ending, but bear in mind the function of the room when making your decision. If it’s a bedroom, then maybe the hollow 6 or 4 panel doors are fine, but you may wish to consider a ‘safe and sound’ (filled-in) format as this gives a certain amount of acoustic protection and feels more solid. A kitchen door may need to be part-glazed or maybe a fire door. Living room doors should be ‘safe and sound’ to keep the noise from the TV out of the rest of the house. You may be pushing the boat out and considering oak veneer or hardwood internal doors. These can look fantastic against sympathetic décor, but bear in mind that commonly these have only a 6mm lipping (the edge), so if more than 5mm needs to come off the sides they may require a suitable veneer. Whatever your requests or ideas, I am happy to advise you on suitability.
If you want to change your main entrance door or back door, consider please the old adage: quality endures long after price has been forgotten. It usually costs no more in labour to fit a quality door than an inferior door. Look out for ‘M&T’ on the label which stands for mortice and tennon; this is the method of construction that is both traditional and strong. Cheaper doors are doweled and will not last. A quality hardwood door, properly painted or stained and periodically maintained, will last for many years. Main entrance and back doors are usually 32” or 33”, and always 44mm thick. Again, older properties may have narrower or wider doors, the 3ft Regency or Victorian being examples.
Should you go for solid or veneered hardwood? Most hardwood doors are veneered. They are engineered with particulate stiles and rails, and the panels are often plywood with a veneer overlay. This is a perfectly acceptable method of construction. You could choose solid hardwood but I can see no clear advantage. Softwood for a back door is often the choice people make, but it will need a bit more in the way of maintenance. A typical back door design is the half glazed and half panel design. Beware – the panel may be only 6mm plywood: one kick and they’re in! Remember, intruders prefer privacy as they go about their business and that 6mm panel is no defence. I always remove this type of panel and fit a replacement 18mm one glued and fastened in place.
With regards security, the main entrance should have a dead-locking night latch, so that if some one breaks the glass they cannot operate the latch without a key, and an insurance-rated mortice lock. These should be fitted as far apart as is practical to spread the locking points, and if it’s an outward opening door, there should be hinge bolts as well. I went to a customer once who had been broken into; they had an outward opening front door fitted with 3 locks, but the intruder had simply removed the hinge pins and the door had literally fallen out! They had no hinge bolts.
Similarly for the back door, there should be at least an insurance-rated mortice sash lock and a top and bottom surface mounted bolt, but ideally a mortice sash and a mortice dead lock. All this security is great, but remember “it ain’t no good if you don’t use it”.
I am able to visit and advise you on any aspect of door maintenance, repair or replacement and am happy to supply and fit, or fit only.
It is well worth the time and effort to repair timber windows and frames, not only from a financial perspective but also from an aesthetic point of view. There are many fine examples of traditional timber windows, whether the timeless purity of traditional box sashes or straight forward timber casements, that complement the building’s overall appearance. There are also unfortunately many examples of the outcome of replacement with plastic; it just doesn’t work on older properties. Often you see two identical properties next to each other, one with plastic windows, the other retaining the original windows. No prizes for guessing which one has that special appeal.
Recently, a friend considered putting their house on the market and sought the advice of an estate agent, asking them whether to replace “these old wooden sash windows with plastic double glazed ones”.
The estate agent replied that if he did then the value of the house would be reduced by about £10,000. The house incidentally was valued at £170,000. The agent was suggesting quite strongly that the original windows would be a significant selling point.
Repairs to timber windows are not an exact science and each repair is different. It can be a straight forward cill replacement, or the scarping-in of fresh timber once the rot has been cut out, or copying mouldings on finer examples. Sometimes I can come across surprises; what may appear straight forward becomes major wood surgery. Over time home owners use fillers then sand this down and paint, and over the years this repair becomes lost. It’s only when the timber next to this temporary repair starts to rot that the earlier filling is found.
Most, but not all, cases of rot in timber windows and frames will be wet rot. There are various types of wet rot and it is caused by timber having a high moisture content for an extended period of time. Vulnerable areas are window cills, bottom rails on openers, and the bottom of stiles (the vertical members on a window). Almost without exception the rot is due to paint degrading or putty becoming cracked and letting in water. Another problem is capillary action between the bottom rail and the cill, where water can sit unnoticed for years. Also, the degrading of glue or pegs on the joints can be an issue, again effecting the bottom members of windows. I usually cut out effected areas, scarp-in replacements, and introduce a timber tennon known as a free tennon into joints to stiffen them, followed by replacing the damaged putty.
It would be prudent to take a look at why the rot has occurred. More often than not the problem is the guttering above or a bush that has grown too close, but it may be just the passage of time. If your windows are old, for example 50, 80 or even 100 years or more, then it’s likely to be no more than wear and tear. A mention of paint would not go amiss. I do not usually get involved in painting but do recommend that you use marine paints on your external joinery, so a trip to a chandlers will need to be made to get the right paint. It will cost a bit more but in my experience as a boat builder (and one-time live-on-board) it out lasts the usual brands available.
I am happy to visit and take a look at your windows with a view to repairs. It may well save you £1000s in replacement costs.
This is a good example of wet rot showing just what can go on unseen this board formed part of a window surround and the gutter above had a leak this event took place over a period of two years resulting in the surround having to be replaced and the leak sorted. A rubber gutter seal at £1.50 and 15 minutes would have prevented this!
Here are before and after photos showing the replacement of a rotten cill across the threshold of a door in Southampton.
This porch was in a sound condition apart from the left hand corner section which was rotten at ground level. The wet rot had also infected the bottom of the door frame by a couple of inches.A little tricky but worth the effort tackling this repair, by doing so the cost of a future replacement of the porch was saved which would have been significant in comparision to the cost of repair. The brickwork was also treated with wet rot treatment to make sure no future reoccurance takes place. The whole repair is then finished in a yacht primer ready for finishing by the customer. The question of why in this particular corner did it take hold? i can only assume that the gutter above had a leaking join or the bush next to the porch had grown to close thus creating the perfect conditions for wet rot to flourish, another reason could be that the mitre joint on the hardwood cill had opened up and rain water had sat in the joint.All materials used on this project are Hardwood.
This is an example of replacement to the window and fascia on a double garage.
Glossary of carpentry and building terms:
Acanthus: Mediterranean plant used in a stylised form for decoration, especially by Neo Classical architects.
Aedicule: The Surrounding of a window or door by a raised moulding or pilasters with a form of pediment across the top. Common on classically styled houses from the 1830s.
Anthemion: A decorative motif based upon a honeysuckle flower.
Apron lining: Vertical lining around the well of a staircase
Architrave: The Lowes section of the entablature in classical architecture. In this context it refers to the door surround.
Area: Common name for the open space in front of a large terraced house down which steps led to the basement.
Ashlar: Smooth stone masonry with fine joints.
Astragal: A small raised bead with semicircular moulding.
Astylar: A façade with no vertical features such as columns.
Baluster: Plain or decorated post supporting the stair rail.
Balustrade: A row of decorated uprights (balusters) with a rail along the top.
Bargeboard: External vertical boards that protect the ends of the sloping roof on a gable and were often decorated.
Bastle House: A defensive house found in the far north, which has a byre on the ground floor and living rooms above.
Batten: Timber of small section usually forming grounds behind finished joinery.
Bay Window: A window projecting from the façade of a house, always resting on the ground even if rising up more than one storey.
Bead: A half round moulding with a a small quirk
Bed Mould: A moulding fitted in the angle between a vertical edge and a flat surface i.e. doorstile and panel.
Bevel: A term used of any angle not at a right angle
Bolection moulding: A projecting S-shaped moulding around a doorway, fireplace, etc.
Bonding: The way bricks are laid in a wall with the different patterns formed by alternative arrangements of headers (the short ends) and stretchers (the long side).
Boss: Carved decoration at the intersection of ceiling beams or the centre of a roof truss.
Bow windows: A bay window with a curved plan.
Box Frames: Windows with hollow built up sides which contain counter weights to sliding sashes.
Brace: A framed diagonal member fitted to resist tension or compression.
Bracket: Either a right angle support or an ornament shape under the return nosing of a cut string stair.
Brattishing: Decoration resembling miniature battlements used along the top of a moulded beam.
Bressumer: A horizontal beam especially a jetty beam.
Butt Bead: A vertical bead with quirk between a flush panel and the surrounding frame.
Cames: Strip of lead of H-shaped cross-section which hold the panes of glass in a leaded light window.
Canted: An angled structure usually referring to a bay window.
Capital: The decorated top of classical column.
Capping String: A moulding wider than the thickness of the string to house balusters.
Carcassing: The timber main parts of a framed structure before coverings or decorative features are applied.
Carriage: The timber framing set under wide stairs to provide additional support.
Cased frame: Hollow built up frames to receive sashes.
Casement: A window that is hinged along the side.
Cavetto mould: A quarter circle hollow mould, often called a scotia.
Chamfer: An angle bevelled so the arris is removed equally on each face of the timber.
Chimneybreast: The main body of the chimney including the fireplace and the flues.
Chimneypiece: An internal fireplace surround.
Conversion: Reducing sawn timber to smaller sections.
Coping stone: A protective capping running along the top of the wall.
Core rail: A metal bar fitted to the underside of a handrail.
Cornice: The top section of the entablature, in this context referring to the moulding that runs around the top of an external or internal wall.
Coving: A large concave moulding that covers the joint between the top of a wall and ceiling.
Crenellations: An alternative name for battlements
Cross-passage: A passage with only one external door; the term is often used instead of through-passage.
Cruck truss: A pair of curved or angled timbers which rise from ground level, or not far above it, and curve over o meet at the apex. Each crucks is called a blade.
Dado: The base of a classical column, but in this context referring to the bottom section of a wall between the skirting and chair (or dado) rail.
Dais: A raised platform at the upper (i.e. Superior) end of an open hall.
Dendrochronology: The science of dating timber by the pattern of growth rings.
Dentils: A row of small, square, alternately projecting decorations used as part of cornices and other mouldings.
Dormer: An upright window set in the angle of the roof and casting light into the attic rooms.
Drip: A hollow throat or groove to the underside of external sills to interrupt the flow of water.
Eaves: The section of the roof timber under the tiles or slates where they either meet the wall (and a parapet continues above) or project over it ( usually projected by a fascia board, which supports the guttering)
Egg and Dart: A decorative row of truncated egg shapes with arrows between used as part of moulding.
Entablature: Horizontal lintel supported by columns in a classical temple.
Entasis: The slight bulging of classical columns in the middle to counter an optical illusion that makes them appear concave to the naked eye.
Façade: The main vertical face of the house.
Fanlight: The window above a door lighting the hall beyond. Named after the radiating bars in semi-circular Georgian and Regency versions.
Fenestration: The arrangement of windows in the façade of a house.
Fielded: The raised central part of a panel.
Finial: A decorative feature at the apex of a gable or on top of a newel post.
Fluting: The vertical concave grooves running up a column or pilaster.
Framed casings: Built up sections forming wide panels to door openings and window reveals.
Field: The bevelled section of a raised panel.
Frieze: The middle section of the entablature, in this context referring to the section of the wall between the picture rail and cornice.
Gable: The pointed upper section of a wall at the end of a pitched roof.
Glazing Bars: The internal divisions of a window, which support the panes.
Groove: In carpentry, a shallow recess, usually semicircular, fee or rectangular in shape.
Guilloche: A decorative pattern made from two twisted bands forming circles between.
Gunstock stile: A diminished stile in width at lock rail level to give increased glass area above.
Halved joint: Two pieces of timber housed out at half its thickness to give a flush surface when assembled.
Hardwood: Timber from broad-leaved or deciduous trees.
Head: The top horizontal member of a frame.
Hearth: The stone or brick base of a fireplace.
Heart wood: the centre of a tree trunk or duramen.
Hood-Mould: A projecting moulding above a stone doorway or window to throw off the rain water.
Horn or Joggle: The projecting end of a sliding sash window to give extra strength.
Housed Joint: A joint to prevent lateral movement in fitments or linings.
Husk: A seed case shape used in decoration.
Inglenook: Term commonly used to describe a large open fireplace with seats on one or both sides.
Jamb: The straight side of an archway, doorway or window.
Jamb linings: Linings whose width equals the finished thickness of a wall.
Jig: A guide, former or template to glue or machine shaped sections.
Kerf: A saw cut partly through material to facilitate bending.
Keystone: The top stone in an arch, often projected as a feature.
Label mould: see Hood-Mould
Lambs tongue: A flat ogee moulding most used in sash sections.
Lath: A thin strip of wood pinned to vertical timbers in walls or the underside of joists on a ceiling to support the plaster. Also used on the exterior to help fix some renderings and hanging tiles.
Lay bar: Horizontal rail to secure the upright members of a ledged door.
Light: An Alternative name for a glazed window sash.
Lining: Thin boards with planted stops to form door surrounds etc.
Lintel: A horizontal beam or stone which bridges an opening.
Loggia: An open side to a building, usually in the form of a series of open arches or columns.
Matching: Tongue and grooved boards, some with fee or beaded edge to hide shrinkage.
Medullary ray: Radiating cell structure giving prominent markings when timber is fully quarter cut, especially in oak.
Mitre: The bisected angle between two equal sections of timber.
Moisture content: Wood, being hygroscopic, must be treated in joinery by kiln drying according to the condition and requirement of the building into which it is to be installed.
Mortise: A slot in one timber designed to receive the tenon of an other timber, hence ‘mortise and tenon joint’.
Moulding: A decorative strip of wood, stone or plaster.
Mullion: A vertical bar of stone or wood which divides a window into lights.
Muntin: Vertical divisions framed between horizontal rails.
Newel post: The central post of a spiral stair; the posts at each corner of a framed stair and at the end of the balustrade.
Ogee: An S-shaped curve, also called a coma or scroll.
Oriel: A projecting window, either on the first floor or a bay rising through two storeys.
Overmantel: A decorative panel, usually of plasterwork, above a fireplace.
Ovolo: A convex moulding formed as a quarter circle or ellipse.
Pallet or Pad: A thin strip of wood built or driven into a brick joint to serve as fixing. Pane: One square of glass within a sash. Panel: A wide infill fitted between a framed surround.
Parapet: The top section of wall, continuing over the sloping end of the roof.
Pargeting: A raised pattern formed from plaster on an external wall (popular originally in the East of England)
Pediment: A low pitched triangular feature supported by columns or pilasters, above a classical styled door or window in this context.
Pellet: A circular matching plug to cover sunken screw fixing etc.
Pendant: A decorative feature, similar to a finial but hanging down; commonly found on the lower end of the newel posts of a framed stair.
Piano Mobile: The principal floor for receiving guests usually on the first floor of a Georgian and Regency House.
Pilaster: A flat classical column fixed to a wall or fireplace and projecting slightly from it.
Pitch: The angle by which a roof slopes. A plain sloping roof of two sides is called a pitched roof.
Plinth: The projecting base around a building.
Portico: A structure forming a porch over a doorway, usually with a flat cover supported by columns.
Pulley stile: Side uprights to carry axle pulleys, pocket, parting and staff beads of a box frame.
Purlin: The principal horizontal beams in a roof structure.
Quarrels or Quarries: Diamond-shaped panes of glass in a leaded-light window.
Quoin: The corner stones at the junction of walls. Often raised above the surface, made from contrasting materials or finished differently from the rest of the wall for decorative effect.
Rail: A framed horizontal or inclined member to doors and panelling etc.
Random timber: Most hardwood is sold in random width an length. This enables the sawmill to get maximum timber content from a log.
Reeding: Three or more parallel beads running vertically or horizontally for decoration, mainly Regency houses.
Render: A protective covering for a wall.
Reveal: The sides (jambs) of a recessed window or door opening.
Reshooting: to resize a door or window that has become stuck.
Roughcast: A form of cement render containing small stones. Pebbledash is a variety of roughcast that has larger pebbles thrown at it before the last cement coat dries.
Rubble: An arrangement of irregular sized stones in a wall either with no pattern or laid in rough courses (layers)
Rustication: The cutting of stone or moulding of stucco into blocks separated by deep incised lines and sometimes with a rough hewn finish. Often used to highlight the base of a classically styled house.
Sash window: A window comprising of sashes (a frame holding glazing) which slide vertically in grooves. A sash window which slides horizontally is also known as a Yorkshire Sash.
Screen Passage: Passage with opposed doorways, separated from the open hall by fixed or removable screens.
Shoot in: to size a door or window so that it fits the opening.
Sill: The beam at the base of a timber framed wall.
Skirting: The protective strip of wood at the base of a wall.
Soffit: The underside of a beam or lintel.
Solar: The upper living room of a medieval house; the private room of the owner of the house or the lord of the manor.
Spandrel: The triangular space between one side of an arch and the rectangular frame enclosing it.
Stanchion: A vertical bar in a window light between the mullions, usually of iron but sometimes of wood.
Stops: The termination of a chamfer or moulding, usually decorative.
String: The sloping timber supporting the treads of a staircase at their outer edge; often decorated. A closed string is where the treads are framed into the string, and an open string is where they project over the top of the string.
String Course: A moulding or narrow projecting course of stone or brick running horizontally along the face of a wall.
Stucco: A plaster used to render, imitate stonework and form decorative features, especially classically styled houses.
Swag: A decorative festoon of cloth, flower or fruit suspended to form a ‘smile’ shape.
Tenon: The end of a piece of wood shaped to fit into a mortise in another piece of wood.
Tracery: The ribs that divide the top of a stone window and are formed in patterns.
Transom: A horizontal cross-bar in a window.
Truss: A pair of principals or principal rafters, usually joined by a collar or tie-beam, set at intervals along a roof to support the purlins, which in turn support the common rafters
Vault: An Arched structure of brick or stone used to cover a room or commonly in Georgian houses to form the basement or cellars.
Vernacular: Building made from local materials in styles and construction methods passed down within a distinct are, as opposed to architect assigned structures made from mass produced materials.
Voussoir: The wedged shaped stones or bricks that make up an arch.
Wainscot: Timber lining of internal walls or panelling.
Wall-plate: A horizontal timber laid along the top of a wall to which the feet of the rafters are joined.
Yorkshire Sash Window: A sash window that slides horizontally and therefore does not require pulleys and weights, hence making it cheaper and popular on the top floors of working class housing.